Facebook Logo Twitter Logo Pinterest Logo Nut Gourmet Blog Logo
only search Vegetarians in Paradise
VIP Bird
VIP Banner
Fill out your e-mail address to receive our newsletter!
*E-mail address:
*First Name:
Last Name:
Please let us know your location for special events:
USA:
Los Angeles:
International
(Outside USA):
Subscribe Unsubscribe
 



***************************************

Vegan for the Holidays


Click Here for Special Purchase Price


Contents
.

Translate This Page

sphere Homepage

sphere Thanksgiving Happenings

sphere News from the Nest

sphere Vegan for the Holidays Blog

sphere Vegan for the Holidays Videos

sphere Zel Allen's NutGourmet Blog

About Us

Cookbooks

Food History/Nutrition/Recipes

sphere On the Highest Perch

Awards

Nutrition Information

Los Angeles Resources

Cooking Tips/Recipes

Guest Contributors

Books/Media Reviews

Directories

sphere Archive Index

sphere Contact Us

*Privacy Policy: When you subscribe to Vegetarians in Paradise (vegetarian e-zine) your email address will not be sold or rented, and will only be used to let you know in an email what's new in our monthy web magazine.

All the world is nuts about

    What's in The Nut Gourmet

The Nutty Gourmet

Vegetarians in Paradise

On the Highest Perch



ONION AFICIONADOS WEEP



Includes Recipe Below

Onion lovers throughout the world are weeping, and they simply can't help it! What is this phenomenon all about, you wonder? It boils down to a few biting facts recognizing that onions, a mere vegetable, have that certain power to bring us to tears.

Onions contain complex sulphur compounds. When you cut into an onion, two chemical reactions take place. First, when a knife cuts through the cells of an onion, its enzymes release a strong odor. Second, the onion releases allicin, a volatile sulfur gas that irritates the eyes and sends one rushing for a tissue.

Historically, the onion is nothing to cry about. Over many centuries it occupied an exalted position as a work of art as well as a food. Not many people today would burst into tears if they were asked to consider the onion as a work of art, but they might do so if they had to eat one raw.

Eaten and cultivated since prehistoric times, onions were mentioned in first dynasty of ancient Egypt, circa 3200 BCE, and have appeared in tomb paintings, inscriptions and documents from that time on. Some paintings depict onions heaped onto banquet tables, both the robust bulb onions as well as scallions.

Of all foods in the plant kingdom, onions set the record for the most frequent appearance in ancient Egyptian art. It certainly is no wonder since they were the staple food of the poor along with bread and beer. Onions often appeared in Egyptian art as a sacrifice that appeared on their altars.

Strange as it seems today, in ancient Egypt a basket of onions was considered a very respectable funeral offering, rating only second to a the highly revered basket of bread.

Archeologists discovered small onions in the eye sockets in the mummy of King Ramses IV who died in 1160 BCE. To the Egyptians, the onion, with its concentric layers, represented eternal life and was buried with each of their Pharoahs.

The origin of the name "onion" comes from the classical period when it was given the Latin name uniothat means oneness or unity, or a kind of single onion. The French call it oignon. Martin Elcort in his book The Secret Life of Food writes, "The word (onion) was created by adding the onion-shaped letter o to the word union, yielding a new spelling ounion. The letter u was later dropped to create the modern spelling. A union is something that is indivisible and which, if taken apart, is destroyed in the process, like an onion."

Onion Wild onions presently grow in Central Asia where the whole family of onions is said to have originated, though some say it was in the area of Iran, Afghanistan, and Pakistan. Those familiar looking, round, mature bulbs are in the Allium cepa genus that is part of the lily family. There are 325 species of onions, 70 of which grow in North America. The grand allium family includes onions, shallots, green onions (often called scallions), chives, leeks, and garlic.

Food historians shake their heads regarding the exact origin of the onion. Some varieties of onions have been given popular names like Egyptian onions or Welsh onions with no evidence that they actually grew in those countries. For instance, the Welsh onion, A. fistulosum, is considered quite primitive in that it has never developed a bulb, but rather resembles a scallion with a slightly thickened stem. The Welsh were not inclined to cultivate them on any large scale, and they weren't even introduced into the country until 1629.

More confusing is the Egyptian onion, a tree onion that was actually unknown in Egypt. A specimen of this unique onion variety came to the attention of Frenchman Jacques Dalechamp, in his country in 1587. The Egyptian onion, never having developed a substantial bulb, did not become popular because it has difficulty developing seeds to reproduce itself. This variety was officially introduced into Great Britain in 1820 from Canada. Historians have been puzzled to see the tree onion, along with the Welsh onion, growing wild in North America.

In their immature state scallions are called spring onions in Britain, though spring onions and scallions are terms sometimes used interchangeably. This causes some confusion. In the southern United States scallions are called green shallots.

The Sumerians of Mesopotamia, the first to establish a written language, developed cuneiform inscriptions. Archeologists found one of their inscriptions dating back to 2400 BCE that read, "The oxen of the gods plowed the city governor's onion patches. The onion and cucumber patches of the city governor were located in the gods' best fields." The inscription actually referred to the property of the temple as the "gods' best fields" that were being misused as an onion patch by the city governors.

One cannot deny the power of the onion on the olfactory senses. The rich found the odor downright disgusting. In spite of their negative attitudes, though, this "odorous" vegetable was cultivated in the gardens of the ancient kings from 2100 BCE to 716 BCE from Ur to Babylon.

From ancient history up to the 19th century, onions were relegated as the food for the poor. The Code of Hammurabi, known as the ancient law of Mesopotamia, shows great concern for the needy by providing them a monthly ration of bread and onions, a ration that comprised the mainstay of the peasant diet. As disagreeable as the onion was to the aristocrats, the peasants devoured them completely raw.

Apparently onions took on dual status in the attitudes in the ancient world. In Egypt they were highly revered by the poor and eaten extensively along with bread and beer. A small sect of Egyptian priests, however, were forbidden to eat them. Historians are unsure of the reason for this taboo. On the other hand, onions may have been reviled by those in high positions. In India Brahmins and Jains are also forbidden to eat onions, even today. Presently in France there is a sect with only a few thousand followers who revere the onion for its immortality and consider it divine.

By 500 BCE onions were a common peasant food in Greece. Though the variety of vegetables eaten by the ancient Greeks was limited to onions, garlic, peas, cabbage and lentils because most were expensive, the onion, however, was the exception. Because it grew easily and extensively, the poor could afford onions as a staple.

Onions played a role during the period Alexander the Great was leading his armies in conquest of other lands. It was believed that if one ate strong foods, one would become strong. Alexander fed his men onions believing they would increase their strength and courage.

In ancient Egypt, Greece, and Rome the common folk relished their onions and even ate them raw. We're all familiar with onion breath. Perhaps that is why the upper classes, such as the Brahmins of India, turned up their noses. Apicius, Imperial Rome's first cookbook author, never featured onions in his cuisine of the wealthy but only used them as flavorings in sauces or to enhance a mixed dish or a dressing. The common folk frequently started their day with a hearty serving of raw onions on bread, a recurring theme throughout the peasant world, and one abhorred by the upper classes.

In Pompeii those "lowly vendors" who sold onions were rejected from the guild of fruit and vegetable vendors, and had to form their own guild. In the brothels of Pompeii, however, onions were held in high regard. Archeologists discovered a basket of overcooked onions in the ruins of one of the city's best-loved brothels where the elite co-mingled with the onioneaters, and, no doubt, enjoyed a few raw slices themselves.

By the first century, Rome developed a healthy respect for onions, which were suspended from numerous strings that hung from the ceiling of the Trajan market. It was during the Middle Ages, that the onion finally achieved status, where the low-born as well as aristocracy relished them equally. In fact, they were so appreciated that Emporer Charlemagne ordered onions to be planted in his royal garden, they were written into the French feudal deeds, and strings of onions were even accepted as payment for the use of land.

On his second to sailing to Haiti during the period of 1493 to 1494, Columbus brought the varieties of the cultivated onion to the New World. Though there were some native wild onions growing in America, they didn't compare to the intense flavor of the new variety from Europe. The Indians quickly adopted these new onions with great enthusiasm, especially the garlic.

Not so insignificant after all, America's native tree onions and nodding onions provided sustenance to Pere Marquette, a French Jesuit missionary and explorer, in 1624 when starvation threatened during his explorations from Green Bay, Wisconsin, to Lake Michigan's southern shore. The city of Chicago, a region that grew wild onions in abundance, received its name from the Indian word that described the odor of onions.

Scallions Had it not been for onions, the civil war might have turned out differently. General Ulysses S. Grant, who headed the Union forces, sent a note to the War Department that read, "I will not move my troops without onions." He promptly received three cartloads. Grant also employed the juice of onions medicinally as a wound healer.

American cowboys favored another native onion, the prairie onion, that they called skunk egg. No doubt it earned this descriptive name because of its powerful odor. Odor aside, the onion lends exceptional flavor to any raw or cooked dish and was always included in a favorite cowboy plat du jour called son-of-a-bitch stew.

What Famous Writers Have to Say about Onions
Onions certainly have stirred writers, chefs, and gourmets to expound on their good as well as questionable and often challenging qualities. Robert J. Courtine, a French gourmet, says, "The onion is the truffle of the poor."

French writer Raymond Dumay affectionately expresses his thought on the onion in this way, "Garlic is peasant, rustic; the onion is urban. The onion brings to the kitchens of the cities a little of the countryside . . . the onion offers always, and especially in winter, a little of the springtime of the soil, preserved in its bulb."

Juvenal, a Roman satirist, created this poem about the Egyptians:

    How Egypt, mad with superstition grown,
    Makes gods of monsters but too well is known.
    'Tis moral sin an Onion to devour,
    Each clove of garlic hath a sacred power,
    Religious nation sure, and best abodes,
    When every garden is o'errun with gods!

Folklore
The pungent odor and awesome strength of the onion was a mystery to ancient man. An old Turkish legend explains it rather profoundly. It tells that when Satan was thrown out of heaven, garlic sprouted where he first placed his left foot, and onions grew where he placed his right foot.

When plague raged throughout Eastern Europe, people thought it was caused by evil spirits, and they used onions and garlic as good luck charms to chase off those spirits.

People hung strands of onions and garlic from their doorways, their windows, and even around their necks to keep the vampires away.

Some cultures thought of the onion family as having sexual powers. Even today, a Middle Eastern bridegroom wears a clove of garlic in his lapel to assure himself of a successful wedding night.

Medicinal Uses
In sixth century India onions were used as a diuretic. They were also considered beneficial for the heart, the eyes, and the joints.

During Colonial times in the U.S., a slice or two of wild onions was thought to be a cure for the measles.

In Chinese medicine, globe onions (allium cepa) are said to calm the liver, moisten the intestines, and benefit the lungs. Raw onions are prescribed for constipation, for lowering high blood pressure, and for healing wounds or ulcers of the skin. Spring onions, or scallions (allium fistulosum), are used to induce sweating. One application for the common cold is to take 20 spring onions and simmer them with rice to make porridge. Add a little vinegar and eat while it is warm. Then wrap yourself up in blankets to induce sweating.

Some health studies have shown raw onions to be effective in lowering overall cholesterol while raising HDLs, the good cholesterol. Additionally, onions kill infectious bacteria, help to control blood sugar, aid in dissolving blood clots, and help to prevent cancer.

At the University of California at Berkeley, researchers found that yellow and red onions, along with shallots, contain quercetin, a powerful antioxidant that acts as an anti-cancer agent to block the formation of cancer cells. One and one-half to three and one-half ounces of raw onions eaten regularly contain enough quercetin to offer cancer protection. White onions lack this antioxidant.

Researcher Terrance Leighton, Ph.D. of the University of California at Berkeley also learned that quercetin deactivates the growth of estrogen-sensitive cells often found to cause breast cancer.

Asthma sufferers may also benefit from a hearty dose of onions. Researchers discovered a sulfur compound contained in onions that can prevent the biochemical chain reaction that leads to asthma attacks.

Selenium, a trace mineral found in onions and garlic, has also demonstrated anti-cancer abilities.

Onion Know Your Onions
"Know your onions" was a term coined in the 1920s to indicate that the many varieties of onions that were cultivated over the years never acquired standardized names from one locale to another. Knowing your onions meant becoming familiar with those varieties that were grown and sold in the area where you live. In later years "knowing your onions" was an idiomatic expression used to describe a thorough knowledge of a subject.

Onions are grown in practically every one of the United States, with varieties developed specifically for each climate. There is hardly a country in the world that doesn't grow multiple varieties of the allium family, since wild varieties existed from prehistoric times. Today onions are bred to adapt well to their different climatic conditions.

Some varieties were quite small like pickling onions that were about one-half inch in diameter, while others became giants. One of the largest onions ever grown appeared in Scotland and weighed in at 6 1/2 pounds.

Onions come in a variety of colors--white, brown, yellow, and red (or purple), while flavors range from mild and sweet to strong and biting. Nearly all onions will make you cry when you cut them--the stronger they are, the more tears you will shed.

Onion breeders closely studied the onion's sulfur compounds, resulting over time in the development of several varieties of sweet onions that were high in water and sugar content. Sweet onions are mostly grown in California and Texas, with Georgia, New Mexico, Washington, and Arizona producing them in smaller quantities.

Mild sweet onions include the following varieties:

    Spanish onions: known for their mild and delicately sweet flavor.
    Bermuda onions: another category of mild onions that come in red, white, or yellow.
    Walla-Walla Sweet onions: originally came from Corsica at the beginning of the 20th century and arrived in Walla-Walla, Washington where they are grown today.
    Texas Sweets 1015: available mid spring through early summer.

Among the hybrid sweet varieties are Vidalia which come from Vidalia, Georgia and Maui onions that come from the island of Maui in Hawaii where the volcanic soil contributed to their sweetness.

Uses in Foods
Though the onion has not yet distinguished itself in American cuisine, it certainly has in other countries. The British love their stuffed onions. The French created onion soup, a universal favorite. The gourmet onion tart developed in Alsace, a northeastern region of France. Bhaji, a flavorful onion fritter, comes from India. A soubise an onion sauce or puree, also came from the cuisine of France and frequently accompanied lamb or mutton dishes.

Onion-skins are usually considered the discards of the vegetable, but not always. Some people have discovered their powerful ability to lend a rich golden color to soups and to dye yarn and fabric. The Greeks traditionally use red onion-skins to dye their Easter eggs a bright pinkish red.

Nutritional Benefits
If you're counting calories, you might want to take advantage of the low-calorie content of sweet raw onions. With 1/2-cup of chopped raw onions, you'll tally up a mere 30 calories. If you cook those same onions, you're up to a only 46 calories.

On the protein scene, 1/2-cup of cooked onions touts 1.4 gms, while the raw have .9 gms. The fat content of this quantity barely registers at .2 gm for cooked onions, and .1 gm for raw.

The folic acid content offers a surprising 15.8 mcg for the cooked, and 15.2 mcg for raw.

Both raw and cooked onions have trace amounts of B vitamins, iron, and zinc but stand out with potassium, magnesium, and calcium. While potassium registers 174.3 mg for 1/2-cup cooked onions, raw onions come in at 125.6 mg. Vitamin C, though not record-breaking, delivers 5.5 mg and 5.1 mg respectively.

Scallions pack a powerful punch of vitamin A with 193 IU for 1/2 C. raw with their tops. Folic acid registers 32.0 mcg, and vitamin C offers 9.4 mg.

Be sure to include scallions in your salads frequently for their high calcium, potassium, and magnesium scores.

And don't forget the powerful antioxidants delivered by onions. Quercetin has anti-cancer agents.

Purchasing
In general, white onions are stronger flavored than yellow onions, though depending on where they were grown, their flavor can vary with the season and from region to region.

To avoid a bitter flavor never, never purchase onions that have begun to sprout greens from their stem portion. This indicates they are old. If you see sprouts forming in your onions stored at home, simply snip them off and use them like chives.

Onion Sweet Onions: Plan to eat these raw to take advantage of their superb flavor. Grown in the fall and winter, sweet onions come to market in the spring and summer. Look for the Texas Sweets and Bermudas during this season. Because sweet onions have a high moisture and high sugar content, they don't store for long periods. It's best to purchase them in small quantities and use them quickly, within a week or two at most. Some special sweet varieties, like the Maui onions, are available in the supermarkets almost year round, but you'll notice they are quite pricey.

Storage Onions: Ideal for longer cooking dishes, these onions add depth and flavor to soups, stews, and casseroles. Their assertive flavors become sweeter during cooking. The stronger flavored varieties earned the term "storage onion" because they store well and keep for weeks in the supermarket due to their low moisture content. Grown in the northern areas of the U.S., they are harvested in the late summer and early fall. They go through a curing period during which they dry out before their long storage of several months. These are available as yellow, brown, or white onions from late fall through early spring, with another crop entering the market from March through September.

Pearl Onions: Only one-inch in diameter, these little pearls possess a delicate sweetness and are available year round.

Shallots: This mild onion variety is considered the gourmet of the allium family with a flavor that has qualities of both garlic and onions. Shallots are somewhat elongated, about 1 1/2 to 2-inches in length and about the same in diameter. From its garlic relatives it has developed its unique appearance of two to four individual cloves covered in a golden brown skin with just a hint of garlic flavor.

Storage
Onions should not be store in the refrigerator because of its high moisture atmosphere,

Have you noticed that some onions seem to keep for weeks, while others become soft and spoiled rather quickly? The secret is in the moisture content. A firm dry onion will keep considerable longer than the sweet ones that seem soft and moist at the outset.

Onions keep best in a cool, dry place, perhaps a pantry or a low cupboard away from excessive heat or light. Plenty of air circulation is beneficial to prevent spoilage. Avoid storing them under a sink where excessive dampness will hasten their demise. It's common practice to store onions and potatoes together but not an ideal one. Potatoes have a great deal of moisture and give off a gas that causes onions to spoil more quickly. Stored carefully, onions can keep for several weeks.

Peeling Without Tears
Many a cook has devised a favorite method for avoiding those inevitable tears while peeling onions, everything from holding a match between the teeth, to peeling and chopping the onions under running water. While peeling them under running water actually does wash away the irritating allicin, it may not always be convenient.

A method that does work successfully is to plan ahead and put the onion in the refrigerator until it is quite cold. Seems it has a chilling effect on the volatile sulfur oils. Voila! No tears!

Raw
Like the ancient Egyptians, Greeks, and Romans, we enjoy the delightful pungence of raw sweet onions, too.

How delightful is the addition of half-moon slices of sweet onions to a salad of crisp mixed greens!

Raw, dehydrated bread would taste even better with a slice of sweet raw onion perched on top.

Add raw onions to a raw blended soup to lend a robust flavor.

Chopped raw onions or sliced scallions make an ideal garnish for raw soups, salads, dips, and pates.

Another easy garnish is to cut off the root end of a scallion, and make several cuts downward, about one and one-half-inches long, through the root end in crisscross fashion to make a scallion flower. You can cut the flower off the green portion. A grouping of these can add flair to any presentation.

Make a chop salad with scallions or onions, peppers, celery, cucumbers, radishes, cabbage, jicama, carrots, and any other favorites you want to include. Squeeze some fresh lime juice over the salad and toss with a little salt and pepper for a delicious and crunchable experience.

Add a bunch of scallions to a raw vegetable appetizer tray.

Why not pickle a few scallions. Wash them thoroughly, cut off the root end, and leave some of the green portion on, about an inch. Pack them into a pint-sized jar along with a tablespoon of pickling spices. Then fill the jar with two parts apple cider vinegar to one part water. Cover the jar with a tight-fitting lid and store them in a dark cupboard for a month and prepare to enjoy a rare treat

Roasting
Slice onions about 1/4-inch thick and spread them out on a lightly oiled a baking pan. Roast them at 375 to 400 for about 25 to 35 minutes until they turn golden brown, turning them with a spatula every 10 to 15 minutes. Season if desired.

An enhanced version of roasted onions includes a light sprinkling of salt, a hint of dry red wine, and a few dashes of balsamic vinegar, taking care not to create too much liquid. Turn them frequently during roasting.

Scallions develop a succulent sweetness during the roasting process and can be served as an appetizer or a side dish. Wash them and discard any discolored areas. Toss them in a little extra virgin olive oil, lay them on a lightly oiled baking pan, and roast at 375 for about 15 to 20 minutes, turning them frequently with a spatula. To avoid drying them out, you can cover them with aluminum foil, dull side up.

Stir Fried
Much like sautéing, stir-frying can be done with a little oil or vegetable broth if one is avoiding the addition of fats. Slice or dice the onions, and add them to a frying pan. Stir them frequently using high heat if you plan to cook them just until softened. If you are browning the onions, lower the heat to medium or medium high, and cook for 25 to 35 minutes, stirring often and adding small amounts of liquid as needed to avoid burning. Your favorite seasonings can be added at the end to brighten the flavors.

Braising
This method is ideal for pearl onions. Prepare the onions by washing them thoroughly but don't peel them. Put them into a saucepan and barely cover them with a small amount of water or vegetable broth. Cover the pot and bring them to a boil over high heat. Turn heat down and simmer about 20 to 25 minutes until tender. Cool slightly, then slip off the peels.

Creamed onions can be a rich accompaniment to almost any meal. While the pearl onions are braising, prepare a vegan cream sauce. Into a 2-quart saucepan, add 2 cups of soy milk,1 or 2 teaspoons of nutritional yeast, and salt and pepper to taste. Bring to a boil. Prepare a thin paste of 2 T. each cornstarch and water, and add to the bubbling sauce a little at a time until thickened to desired consistency. Add onions and simmer 5 minutes. Serve and enjoy.

Here's a vegan approach to a classic soup that provides a satisfying warm-up when the weather turns chilly.


FRENCH ONION SOUP

4 lbs. (2 kilos) or 6 medium-large brown onions
2 T. extra virgin olive oil
1/2 C. (118 ml) water

4 cloves garlic, crushed
8 C. (1.9 liters) water

1/2 C. (118 ml) tamari
3/4 t. salt
2 1/2 t. Spike seasoning
2 T. dry red wine

3 cloves garlic, cut in half
6 to 8 slices whole grain bread
6 to 8 vegan jack or mozzarella cheese slices or 2 C. (480 ml) shredded

  1. Slice onions thinly, then cut slices in half.
  2. Combine onions, olive oil, and water in a large deep skillet. Sauté onions over high heat, stirring them frequently, for about 25 minutes. Turn heat down slightly, and continue cooking until well browned, about 20 minutes longer. Stir frequently and watch carefully to avoid burning onions.
  3. Transfer onions to a 10 to 12-quart (10 to 12-liter) stockpot, and add garlic and water. Cover pot and bring to a boil over high heat. Turn heat down to medium and simmer about 20 minutes.
  4. Add tamari, salt, Spike, and wine. Simmer about 5 minutes to blend flavors.
  5. To serve, rub each bread slice with a half-piece of garlic and toast until bread is firm. Ladle soup into ceramic or glass bowls (not plastic), and float bread on top of each bowl.
  6. Lay or sprinkle cheese on top of bread, and place bowls under the broiler until cheese melts. Place each bowl on a serving plate and serve immediately. Makes 6 to 8 servings.



Click here for past On the Highest Perch Features



Vegetarians in Paradise

Homepage sphere Los Angeles Events Calendar sphere Our Mission sphere The Nut Gourmet sphere Vegan for the Holidays sphere Vegetarian Survival Kit sphere News from the Nest sphere Recipe Index sphere Los Angeles Vegetarian Restaurants sphere Vegetarian Basics 101 sphere Protein Basics sphere Calcium Basics sphere Ask Aunt Nettie sphere VeggieTaster Report sphere Vegetarian Reading sphere VegParadise Bookshelf sphereHeirloom Gardening sphere Cooking with Zel sphere Dining in Paradise sphere Cooking Beans & Grains sphere On the Highest Perch sphere Road to Vegetaria sphere Words from Other Birds sphere Using Your Bean sphere Ask the Vegan Athlete sphere Vegetarian Holiday Meals sphere Great Produce Hunt sphere Farmers' Markets sphere Natural Food Markets sphere Vegetarian Associations Directory sphere Links We Love sphere VegParadise Yellow Pages sphere Media Reviews sphere 24 Carrot Award sphere Vegetarian Food Companies sphere Archive Index sphere Contact Us

© 1999-2014 vegparadise.com